EDITORIAL ANALYSIS : Unpacking the Dubai climate meeting – PuuchoIAS


Source: The Hindu

  • Prelims: Current events of national importance, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Nipah virus, The Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) etc
  • Mains GS Paper I & II: Development and management of social sectors/services related to Health and education etc


  • The 28th annual Conference of the Parties (COP28) to the United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change will take place in Dubai.




Relevance of COP:

  • The COP remains the central place where the machinery of global climate governance gets built.
  • All countries have a voice at COPs, questions of equity and vulnerability are more likely to be placed on the table.


Devastating weather events of 2023:

  • Extreme heat in North Africa and Europe
  • Wildfires in Canada and Hawaii
  • Floods in India and Libya
  • Drought in the Horn of Africa.
  • Land and ocean temperatures increases
  • Antarctic sea ice decreased


Global Stocktake

●      The first Global Stocktake (GST)

●      It is a key part of the Paris Agreement machinery.

●      The GST is at the heart of a five yearly ‘ambition cycle’, which consists of:

○      country pledges for climate action

○      A global assessment of progress through the GST

○      Renewed country pledges.

●      It assesses aggregate (not individual country) progress in mitigation, adaptation and support (finance, technology and capacity).

  • The GST findings: Greenhouse gas emission pathways are not on track to limit warming to the Paris targets of 2°C or 1.5°C.


Challenges to GST:

  • Developing countries: GST must look at past efforts and bring accountability for the failure of many developed countries, consistent with equity
  • Developed countries argue that developing countries will account for the bulk of future emissions and the GST should focus on limiting emissions going forward.


What does the GST do?

  • GST calls for greater ambition
  • It calls for enhanced implementation of pledges.
  • It focuses on actions countries can and should take now versus uncertain future statements of intent for future decades.


What should GST do?

  • GST should inform and drive the next round of bottom-up national pledges — Nationally Determined Contributions — mandated by 2025.


The case of Fossil Fuels:

  • India has been among those advocating a broad focus on all fossil fuels versus a narrow focus on coal.
    • As was included in prior COPs.
  • Coal is the most polluting.
    • Addressing climate change requires addressing all fossil fuels.
  • Oil and gas are much larger sources of energy in the developed world and critical to petrostates such as Dubai
  • India depends more on coal.


Way Forward

  • Diplomats at the COP are tasked with addressing an ever-more urgent problem under challenging conditions for global cooperation.
  • To give implementation concrete form, the COP is likely to include language that calls for countries to triple renewable energy and double energy efficiency
    • Ideas that were notably included in the recent G20 Delhi Leaders’ Declaration.
  • Adaptation has often been the neglected dimension of climate negotiations: COP28 is an opportunity to correct this, because a ‘Global Goal on Adaptation’ is to be agreed, setting unified, consistent targets for enhancing resilience and adaptive capacity.
  • Establishment of a Loss and Damage Fund, agreement: This COP is tasked with advancing progress.
    • In a pre-negotiation: A fragile consensus was won on several issues:
      • Who will pay into the fund – developed countries are ‘urged’ and developing countries are ‘encouraged’
      • who will receive – the vaguely worded ‘particularly vulnerable’ countries.
    • The World Bank was agreed as an interim host of the fund, but under strict governance guidelines to provide a greater say for recipient countries.
  • The GST is careful to call for ambition not only in action but also support for those actions, notably finance.
  • By COP28, the discussion has shifted to a concrete assessment of needs to support mitigation and adaptation, with numbers hovering in the low trillion.
  • The stakes for countries from COPs are consequential, in terms of climate impacts, fossil fuel energy politics, and competitiveness in emergent energy technologies.
    • All this will not be resolved in Dubai, but it will be an important marker in the slow unfolding of global climate politics.


Besides being a moral imperative of the Welfare State, primary health structure is a necessary precondition for sustainable development.” Analyze.(UPSC 2021) (200 WORDS, 10 MARKS)

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