[Insights Secure – 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 4 August 2021 – PuuchoIAS


 

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. “A shrinking population is a bigger worry than a heavy welfare burden”, in this context discuss the challenges associated with a shrinking population with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The article explains the challenges associated with a shrinking population.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail with suitable illustrations as to why a shrinking population is a bigger worry than a heavy welfare burden.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with recent trends in the population size and the shrinkage.

Body:

Such answers are best explained with examples; The US population was shrinking. From the fertility rate of 3.2 in 1956, the fertility rate reached 1.6 in 2020. But the shrinking population has many challenges associated with it. For instance, the domestic business investment in the US also followed this decreasing trend.

Then explain the challenges with the shrinking population such as – the problem of aging, impact on the economy etc.

Present the case of Japan, US and India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with impact of it and suggest what needs to be done.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2. Despite legal measures, the juvenile delinquency is on rise in India. By analyzing the challenges in implementation of law, suggest measures to address the same. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains that the Bill was tabled in Lok Sabha during the budget session in March this year where it had received overwhelming support from both the ruling party as well as the Opposition.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the challenges associated in the implementation of the legal measures related to juvenile delinquency and suggest measures to address the same.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what are juvenile crimes that force us to understand the legal measures and importance of their implementation in India.

Body:

Discuss first the reasons for which the juvenile delinquency is on rise in India.

Explain what the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015, is which is being amended through this new Bill.

Analyze the challenges in implementation of law.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

3. Why do you think disruption is replacing discussion as the foundation of our legislative functioning off late? Explain and suggest measures for breaking the pattern of these parliamentary disruptions. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

Last week, a newspaper reported that the government is considering curtailing the monsoon session of Parliament on account of disruptions.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss about disruption of legislatures and ways to deal with it.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what are the disruptions that are being witnessed in the functioning of legislative.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss first the reasons for disruptions; inadequate time, Unresponsive attitude, Adherence to norm, the absence of prompt action against disrupting MPs under the legislature’s rules.

Suggest what needs to be done; Enforcement of a code of conduct for MPs and MLAs, increase in working days, legislature should meet throughout the year, like parliaments of most developed democracies, concept of opposition days etc.

Conclusion:

Strengthening of our Parliament is the solution to prevent disruption of its proceedings. It is the only mechanism to ensure that disrupting its proceedings or allowing them to be disrupted ceases to be a viable option.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. How DBT Mission improved the government’s welfare transfers? Discuss the challenges associated too. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The article explains DBT Mission’s achievement, challenges and solutions. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the role played by DBT in the welfare schemes and the challenges associated.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief introduction of DBT scheme.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

How DBT Mission improved the government’s welfare transfers?

Explain that DBT was initiated with the aim to reform government delivery system by re-engineering the existing process in welfare schemes for simpler and faster flow of information/funds and to ensure accurate targeting of the beneficiaries, de-duplication and reduction of fraud.

Advantages – DBT will bring efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability in the Government system and infuse confidence of citizen in the governance. Use of modern technology and IT tools will realize the dream of maximum governance minimum government.

Discuss the challenges associated with it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suggestions to improve the DBT Mission.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

5. What do you understand by food fortification? Discuss the various types of it while discussing the challenges and benefits associated. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

In a pushback against the Centre’s plan to mandatorily fortify rice and edible oils with vitamins and minerals, a group of scientists and activists have written to the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), warning of the adverse impacts on health and livelihoods. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of food fortification and explain the various types of it while discussing the challenges and benefits associated.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what do you understand by food fortification.

Body:

Food fortification is defined as the practice of adding vitamins and minerals to commonly consumed foods during processing to increase their nutritional value.

It is a proven, safe and cost-effective strategy for improving diets and for the prevention and control of micronutrient deficiencies.

Discuss the types of food fortification, advantages offered by it and the issues associated.

Conclusion:

Conclude suitably.

 

Topic: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

6. Account for the contributions of Dairy sector to climate crisis in India. (250 words)

Reference:  Down to Earth

Why the question:

The article brings to us   contributions of Dairy sector to climate crisis.

Key Demand of the question:

One is to account for the contributions of Dairy sector to climate crisis and suggest way forward.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with key facts related to Dairy sector in general.

Body:

Harvesting animals for dairy and animal-based products in India is a major source of livelihood for 150 million dairy farmers. The products are a source of nutrition and food security for a significant chunk of the population as well. The dairy sector accounts for 4.2 per cent of the national gross domestic product.

Then move on to debate about the harmful consequences of animal harvesting on climate. Methane from animal waste contributes to 75% of total greenhouse emissions from the dairy sector.

Discuss the various challenges and risks to climate that the sector brings.

Give examples and suggest what needs to be done, give solutions.

Conclusion:

Conclude that dairy producers cannot ignore the climate consequences of the sector. They need to proactively ramp up production of plant-based human food alternatives to dairy products. Otherwise they may risk being forced to do so reactively by government regulation.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7. Elaborate upon the role of social influence in determining the behavior of an individual.(250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is premised on the theme of social Influence and its importance in shaping the behavior of an individual.

Key Demand of the question:

One must elaborate upon the role of social influence in determining the behavior of an individual.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define the term social influence in the introduction.

 Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Social influence is the process by which individuals adapt their opinion, revise their beliefs, or change their behavior as a result of social interactions with other people. It takes many forms and can be seen in socialization, peer pressure, obedience, leadership, persuasion, and marketing.

Discuss the role of social influence in shaping behavior of a person. Give suitable illustrations wherever needed to justify your stand.

Conclusion:

Conclude with important role that social influence plays in shaping behavior of individuals.


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