GS Paper 2
Syllabus: Government Policies and Interventions
Source: WFP: HungerMap
Context: The World Food Programme has released “HungerMap LIVE: Global insights and key trends”.
What is HungerMap LIVE?
HungerMap LIVE is a real-time monitoring system tracking key indicators of acute hunger, including household food consumption, livelihoods, child nutritional status, mortality, and access to clean water.
The global issue of hunger and food insecurity has shown an alarming increase since 2015, a trend exacerbated by a combination of factors including the pandemic, conflict, climate change, and deepening inequalities, which calls for attention.
Key findings of the Report:
|Key Points (Global figures)||Details|
|Global Food Insecurity and Hunger||828 million chronically hungry globally.|
|193 million experiencing acute hunger in 53 countries.|
|Countries with a High Prevalence of Insufficient Food||12 countries account for 33% of the total number of people with insufficient food consumption|
|Includes Somalia, Afghanistan, Syrian Arab Republic, Niger, Mali, Haiti, and more.|
|Prevalence of Crisis or Above Crisis Level Coping||Includes Haiti, the Syrian Arab Republic, Afghanistan, Yemen, and more.|
|Prevalence of Challenges Accessing Markets||Includes the Central African Republic, the Syrian Arab Republic, Namibia, and others.|
Note: A person is food insecure when they lack regular access to enough safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active and healthy life.
Hunger-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):
- Hunger-related Sustainable Development Goals are the SDGs that have a bearing on hunger status directly or indirectly. Accordingly, these are:
- SDG 1 – End poverty in all its forms everywhere (poverty-hunger interlinkage)
- SDG 2 – Creating a world free of hunger by 2030
- SDG 3 – Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
- SDG 6 – Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
- SDG 12 – Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns (choice of crops and nutrition)
- SDG 13 – Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts (climate change-related nutritional and food security issues)
India’s performance in hunger-related SDGs:
|Sustainable Development Ranking||In the 2021 Sustainable Development Report, India’s ranking slipped from 117 to 120 among 193 countries, placing it in the serious category of hunger.|
|India also faces challenges related to zero hunger, health, well-being, safe drinking water, and gender equality among others.|
|Global Hunger Index (GHI) Ranking||The Global Hunger Index (GHI) for 2022 ranked India 107 out of 121 countries, lagging behind Nigeria (103) and Pakistan (99).|
|Food Security and Malnutrition||According to the State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World Report 2022, India is home to over 224 million undernourished people.|
|Despite initiatives like the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, the mid-day meal scheme since 1995, and the POSHAN Abhiyaan, India struggles with high rates of malnutrition.|
- Mission Poshan 2.0: The flagship programme dedicated to maternal and child nutrition.
- National Food Security Act 2013
- Zero Hunger Programme: Began in 2017 to improve agriculture, health and nutrition.
- Eat Right India Campaign
- Food Fortification / Fortification of rice
- PM Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana
Going forward, effective implementation of the programmes with proper identification of the vulnerable population will help India perform better in hunger-related goals and achieve the target of zero hunger.
Q) Hunger and Poverty are the biggest challenges to good governance in India still today. Evaluate how far successive governments have progressed in dealing with these humongous problems. Suggest measures for improvement. ( UPSC 2017)
Q) How far do you agree with the view that the focus on lack or availability of food as the main cause of hunger takes the attention away from ineffective human development policies in India? ( UPSC 2018)