GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Local Bodies, Conservation of wild life etc
- Kerala government has empowered local bodies to cull wild boars that pose a threat to agriculture crops or human life.
- The secretaries of the local bodies concerned will act as the delegated officers.
- Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI) was constitutionalized through the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 to build democracy at the grassroots level
- This act has added a new Part-IX to the Constitution of India.
- This part is entitled as ‘The Panchayats’ and consists of provisions from Articles 243 to 243 O.
- 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act added a new Eleventh Schedule to the Constitution. This schedule contains 29 functional items of the panchayats. It deals with Article 243-G.
Urban Local Governments:
- There are eight types of urban local governments in India – Municipal Corporation, Municipality, Notified Area Committee, Town Area Committee, Cantonment Board, township, port trust, special purpose agency.
- At the Central level the subject of ‘urban local government’ is dealt with by the following three Ministries:
- The Ministry of Urban Development was created as a separate ministry in 1985 (now Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs).
- Ministry of Defense in the case of cantonment boards.
- Ministry of Home Affairs in the case of Union Territories.
- 74th Amendment Act of 1992 added Part IX -A and consists of provisions from articles 243-P to 243-ZG.
- It added the 12th Schedule to the Constitution. It contains 18 functional items of Municipalities and deals with Article 243 W.
Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972:
- The Act was enacted for the protection of plants and animal species.
- It extends to the whole of India. Prior to this legislation, India had only five designated national parks.
- The Central Government appoints the Director of Wildlife Preservation and assistant directors and other officers subordinate to the Director.
- The State Governments appoint a Chief Wildlife Warden (CWLW) who heads the Wildlife Wing of the department and exercises complete administrative control over Protected Areas (PAs) within a state.
- The state governments are also entitled to appoint Wildlife Wardens in each district.
- Prohibition of hunting:
- It prohibits the hunting of any wild animal specified in Schedules I, II, III and IV of the act.
- Exception: A wild animal listed under these schedules can be hunted/ killed only after getting permission from the Chief Wildlife Warden (CWLW) of the state if:
It becomes dangerous to human life or to property (including standing crops on any land.
It is disabled or suffering from a disease that is beyond recovery.
- It prohibits the uprooting, damage, collection, possession or selling of any specified plant from any forest land or any protected area.
- Exception: The CWLW, however, may grant permission for uprooting or collecting a specific plant for the purpose of education, scientific research, preservation in a herbarium or if a person/institution is approved to do so by the central government.
- The government can declare an area (including an area within a sanctuary) as a National Park. A Collector is appointed by the central government to administer the area declared as a Sanctuary.
- Under Section 62 of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, States can send a list of wild animals to the Centre requesting it to declare them vermin for selective slaughter.
- Also known as the wild swine
- The species is now one of the widest-ranging mammals in the world, as well as the most widespread suiform.
- IUCN Red List- least concern
- It has become an invasive species in part of its introduced range.
- Indian boar, also known as the Andamanese pig or Moupin pig, is a subspecies of wild boar native to India.
- They can also be spotted in some of the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuary such as Sariska Tiger Reserve, Bandhavgarh National Park, Corbett National Park and Ranthambore National Park.
Wild boar (IUCN status, distribution)
Wildlife Act, 1972
Local bodies (73rd and 74th constitutional amendment acts)
Empowering local bodies can build democracy at grassroot levels. Discuss with recent examples.
Q5. Consider the following statements:
- Under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 Director of Wildlife Preservation is appointed by the state government and chief Wildlife warden is appointed by the central government.
- The IUCN status of Wild Boar is of least concern.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct:
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
Ans : (b)